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Additional Evidence Report for Secondary Education - English (MAT)

This report is designed to include additional information not already included in SPA reports. Begin your program review with the latter.

5. CONSISTENCY OF ASSESSMENT DECISIONS
A. Assessment Procedure Chart


Key assessments

Procedures for maintaining consistent assessment decisions

1. PRAXIS II Exams: Content and Essay

See www.ets.org for specific details. 

2.  English Content Portfolio

The work that teacher candidates submit in their English Content Portfolio is evaluated by a committee of English faculty. The composition of this scoring committee changes each semester, and prior to each semester's scoring session, members of the committee are trained to use the rubric (see attached), by the English Department Chair, in a practice scoring session.
Once readers are trained and begin the work of reading and scoring the portfolios, each portfolio score is arrived at using this process: Two readers independently read and score the contents of each portfolio using the rubric below. They then compare their scores and, if they disagree on the assessment (for instance, if one reader scores a portfolio a “satisfactory” and another an “outstanding”), a third reader is asked to review the portfolio and to score it, and then an average score is reached from those three readings.

3.  Teacher Candidate Work Sample (TCWS): Contextual Factors, Learning Goals, Assessment Plan, Design for Instruction

Assessed by the Student Teaching Seminar Instructor.  See below for details.

4.  Teacher Candidate Observation and Progress Report

Assessed by the Student Teaching Seminar Instructor. See below.

5. TCWS: Instructional Decision-making, Analysis of Student Learning, Candidate Reflection

Assessed by the Student Teaching Seminar Instructor. See below.

6.  Critical Analysis of Media Lesson Plan

Assessed by the Student Teaching Seminar Instructor. See below.

B. Summary/Narrative
 During the summer of 2008, the FSEHD Assessment Committee (of which Dr. Johnson is a member) designed a Teacher Candidate Work Sample (TCWS) adapted from the Renaissance Partnership for Improving Teacher Quality Project.  The English Education program was one of two programs to pilot the TCWS in fall 2008, and one of several in spring 2009.  As a result of feedback from the pilot cohorts throughout the FSEHD, the Assessment Committee completed a thorough revision in summer 2009.  The revision included clarifications of directions and samples; adding a writing usage section to each rubric; more rigorous requirements; and a new section called the Candidate Reflection.   The Student Teaching Seminar Instructors—faculty in the English Education program--teach and assess all of the components of the TCWS.
In addition, the FSEHD Assessment Committee developed the Observation and Progress Report (OPR) modeled on other Observation Reports in use throughout the country and with feedback from the FSEHD faculty.  As with the TCWS, the English Education faculty volunteered to pilot the OPR and have used it since Spring 2009.   
Teacher Candidate Work Sample Data (#3 and #5 above)
We have separated data into two tables to differentiate the two semester pilot cohorts from the two most recent semesters of implementation, including the changes in points for each product. 


Pilot Cohorts

Contextual Factors
(30 pts)

Learning Goals
(24 pts)

Assessment Plan
 (30 pts)

Design for Instruction
(42 pts)

Fall 2008
 (7 students)

27.5

23.4

25.4

36.7

Spring 2009
(11 students)

23.9

20

21.6

33.2

Cohort

Contextual Factors
(36 pts)

Learning Goals
(42 pts)

Assessment Plan
(48 pts)

Design for Instruction
(42 pts)

Fall 2009
(7 students)

31.4

35

42.1

34.7

Spring 2010
(15 students)

29.5

34.5

41.2

32.2

Pilot Cohorts

Instructional Decision Making
(18 points)

Analysis of Student Learning (24 points)

Candidate Reflection (not administered)

Fall 2008
 (7 students)

17

20.1

N/A

Spring 2009
(11 students)

14.7

18.2

N/A

Cohort

Instructional Decision Making
(42 points)

Analysis of Student Learning (42 points)

Candidate Reflection (30 points)

Fall 2009
 (7 students)

34.7

35.8

24.6

Spring 2010
(15 students)

36.6

35

25.2

After the TCWS was in use for two years, English Education program faculty analyzed data from all four cohorts (Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010). The two second cohorts provided the more useful and reliable information, as the pilots were the first time English Education faculty had taught and assessed the TCWS, and the candidates were unfamiliar with some of the terminology used within it. Across the four cohorts, candidate performance remained steady for the Contextual Factors, Learning Goals (with the exception of the first pilot cohort), and Design for Instruction products, and improved most dramatically with the Assessment Plan (+4% from fall 2008 to fall 2009 and +14% from spring 2009 to spring 2010).  Data from the pilot cohorts indicated that candidates were not well-prepared to develop assessments, so efforts were made to focus more heavily on assessment throughout the Secondary Education Program.  English Education faculty devoted significantly more time in Practicum and Student Teaching Seminar to teaching candidates how to design and implement appropriate pre-, formative, and summative assessments, and the higher scores indicate these efforts paid off.
Observation and Progress Report Data (#4 above)
For the sake of clarity and brevity, data is included from the third (last) formal observation from both college teachers and cooperating teachers for the OPR.  Faculty believe this is an appropriate measurement of student teaching because it occurs after 12-14 weeks in the placement. 

Section One: Lesson Indicators

Fall 2009
College Teacher
(Obs. 3)

Fall 2009
Cooperating Teacher
(Obs. 3)

Spring 2010
College Teacher
(Obs. 3)

Spring 2010
Cooperating Teacher
(Obs. 3)

Planning

5.5

5.27

4.79

4.8

Action: Implementation

5.3

5.11

4.70

4.91

Action:
Content

5.48

5.17

4.96

5.28

Action: Climate

5.5

5.32

4.94

5.33

Action: Class Management

5.35

5.26

4.84

4.93

Section Two:
Capsule Rating

5.85

6

5

5.16

Section Three:
Post Observation
Reflection

5.74

5.57

5.06

5.31

Section Four: Ongoing Progress (only teachers assess)
Professional Behavior

N/A

5.75

N/A

5.65

Technology

N/A

4.99

N/A

4.96

The Observation and Progress Report was first implemented as a pilot in spring 2009, but there was not enough data to analyze so it is not included here.  For Fall 2009 and Spring 2010, the data is somewhat inconsistent for the following reasons.   First, the Unit (FSEHD) is still perfecting an online database for both college supervisors and cooperating teachers to input their data.  Not all teachers were accustomed to the system, and thus there is some missing data from them.  Second, English Education faculty are still familiarizing themselves with the instrument and calibrating their scores in order to achieve inter-rater reliability.  Third, the instrument is a living document, and the Assessment Committee is still perfecting it, which may account for some differences in scores between semesters.  Fourth, there is a large difference in student numbers between cohorts (seven in Fall 2009 versus 16 in Spring 2010).  For the smaller cohort, extremely high or low numbers skew the data.
That being said, the data do offer significant feedback about the English Education program:

  • Teacher candidates' scores are in the Acceptable (3-4) and Target (5-6) ranges for each section, according to the scoring rubrics for the Observation Report. This is evidence of how well candidates perform in their professional placements and how well college teachers and cooperating teachers model and mentor the candidates.
  • The data indicate that inter-rater reliability exists between college supervisors and cooperating teachers within each cohort.  This consistency is important, as it indicates that candidates are receiving similar messages about their strengths and weaknesses. 
  • While inter-rater reliability exists within cohorts, it does not exist across cohorts.  The Fall 2009 cohort, supervised by Dr. Jennifer Cook, and the Spring 2010 cohort, supervised by Dr. Janet Johnson, indicate that Dr. Johnson and her cooperating teachers score candidates consistently lower. There are multiple factors that could be contributing to this gap, including the variation in size of the cohorts, but work is needed to ensure that their interpretations of the instrument are in alignment.
  • The disaggregated data does not indicate any obvious outliers, which is a sign that the instrument is effective in capturing both supervisors' and teachers' assessments of the candidates.

To summarize:  data analysis of the Teacher Candidate Work Sample and Observation and Progress Report scores indicates that the English Education faculty grade consistently within their cohorts.  However, Dr. Johnson scores her candidates lower than Dr. Cook on the TCWS and OPR.  There are various factors that might contribute to this gap, and thus further analysis is needed.  In the coming semesters, Dr. Johnson and Dr. Cook will work together to develop inter-rater reliability by scoring each other's candidates on these assessments and comparing notes.
Critical Analysis of Media Lesson Plan (#6 above)
In compiling the data for this report, it is clear that there are significant deficiencies in this assessment.   Richer indicators for each measure of the assessment (the 1-4 rating scale) need to be developed. While this data provides general information about consistent weaknesses of candidates in the production of lessons that allow for students to critically analyze media, it does not provide sufficient information to develop a more accurate or better measure of their knowledge in this area.  English Education faculty need to work on developing a more effective assessment of candidates' knowledge of non-print texts/media and their applications, interpretations, and analyses.
Key to scores:      
1=the skill is not significantly present
2=the skill is evident, but is vague or not appropriately developed
3=the skill is evident, but does not fully meet all criteria in the indicator
4=the skill is evident and addresses all criteria in the indicator

 

Fall 2008
Mean Score

Spring 2009
Mean Score

Fall 2009
Mean Score

Spring 2010
Mean Score

1. Understands the purposes and characteristics of different kinds of curricula and related teaching resources and selected or creates instructional materials that are consistent with what is currently known about student learning in ELA (NCTE 4.1)

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

2. Engages students in critical analysis of different media and communications technologies and their effect on students' learning (NCTE 4.6)

 

2

 

3

 

3

 

3

3. Creates opportunities and develops strategies that permit students to demonstrate, through their own work, the influences of language and visual images on thinking and composing (NCTE 3.2.1)

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

4. Creates opportunities and develops strategies for enabling students to demonstrate how they integrate writing, speaking, and observing in their own learning processes (NCTE 3.2.2)

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

5. Demonstrates a variety of ways to teach students composing processes that result in their creating various forms of oral, visual, and written literacy (NCTE 3.2.3)

 

2

 

2

 

2

 

2

6. Engages students in activities that provide opportunities for demonstrating their skills in writing, speaking, and creating images for a variety of audience (NCTE 3.2.4)

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

7. Uses a variety of ways to assist students in creating and critiquing a wide range of print and non-print texts for multiple purposes and helps students understand the relationships between symbols and meaning (NCTE 3.2.5)

 

3

 

2

 

2

 

2

8. Understands media's influence on culture and people's actions and communication, reflecting the knowledge not only in her own work but also in her teaching (NCTE 3.6.1)

 

3

 

2

 

3

 

3

9. Uses a variety of approaches for teaching students how to construct meaning from media and non-print texts and integrates learning opportunities into classroom experiences that promote composing and responding to such texts (NCTE 3.6.2)

 

3

 

2

 

3

 

2

10. Helps students compose and respond to film, video, graphic, photographic, audio, and multimedia texts and uses current technology to enhance their own learning and reflection on their learning (NCTE 3.6.3).

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

Given the shortcomings of this assessment tool, the data above still indicate some useful findings. Candidates are consistently weak in demonstrating specific NCTE indicators:

  • Demonstrates a variety of ways to teach students composing processes that result in their creating various forms of oral, visual, and written literacy (NCTE 3.2.3)
  • Uses a variety of ways to assist students in creating and critiquing a wide range of print and non-print texts for multiple purposes and helps students understand the relationships between symbols and meaning (NCTE 3.2.5)
  • Uses a variety of approaches for teaching students how to construct meaning from media and non-print texts and integrates learning opportunities into classroom experiences that promote composing and responding to such texts (NCTE 3.6.2)

The words “variety” and “various” appear several times in the above rubric:

  • a variety of ways to teach composing processes,
  • students creating various forms of literacy,
  • a variety of ways to assist students in creating and critiquing,
  • a variety of approaches, and so on.

Candidates' shortfalls in these areas seem to point to a lack of variety in their approaches to the Critical Analysis of Media assignment and in their teaching ideas and methods.  One way to provide candidates with additional experiences in creating other assignments that meet these criteria is to require similar lessons from candidates in Methods courses (SED 406 and SED 407) as well as in their film cognate in the English Department (ENGL 116). This would not only provide candidates with some scaffolding for this assessment but would also allow them to, perhaps, develop a deeper repertoire where their knowledge of a variety of approaches/methods is concerned. This assessment challenge will be taken up in spring 2011 with help from the English Education Advisory Committee.

6. DIVERSITY
The English teacher candidate is introduced to the significance of unequal educational outcomes and the importance of addressing the needs of all students from their very first class in the professional sequence. That understanding is a cornerstone of the program, and as candidates progress through their professional sequence, they deepen and build upon this understanding. They explore ways to better meet the needs of all students in schools, develop and teach lessons that have this as a central objective, and reflect upon their successes and challenges as they continue to adapt their lessons.

FNED 346: Schooling in a Democratic Society. The course examines the historical roots of inequality in U.S. society, how schools have contributed to unequal outcomes, and how educators can work to ensure that all students have opportunities to succeed in schools.

Catalog Description, FNED 346: The social and cultural forces that affect schools are examined.  Fifteen hours of field-based experience is required.

Candidates, as part of their experience, spend 15 + hours tutoring in urban diverse schools.  They research data available online (e.g., NECAP scores, InfoWorks data on ELLs, free lunch as a proxy for social class etc.) for the schools and communities in which they will be tutoring in order to better understand their students. Candidates are asked to reflect, journal, and blog on their readings and classroom experiences, and to relate what they are learning in the classroom to what they are observing and experiencing in the schools. Educational practices that address the needs of all students are examined through readings, films, school experiences etc. Candidates also attend Promising Practices, a conference for educators and teacher candidates held annually at Rhode Island College, which offers a keynote speaker, workshops, and a media and curriculum fair that focus on making schools and teachers more responsive to the needs of all students.

RITER Cultural Competency Assessment Tool. FNED 346 instructors are piloting the introduction and integration of aspects of the RITER-funded Cultural Competency Assessment Tool, developed by participants from all universities in RI with teacher preparation programs, into their classes. The Cultural Competency Assessment Tool, used for formative purposes, is intended to assist the candidate in understanding, developing, and ultimately practicing what constitutes culturally competent teaching.

This formative instrument was designed as a means of assessing whether the teacher candidate … is able to incorporate culturally competent teaching practices into his or her teaching experience…. The instrument is broken down into five areas or categories (Planning and Instruction; Assessment; Professional Behavior; Collaboration; Communication).  These categories have been generally accepted by researchers and supervising practitioners as embodying the scope of culturally competent teaching.  The term “sociocultural” is used to represent differences in ethnicity, race, gender, class, language, ability, sexual orientation, social class and religion. (RITER Cultural Competency Assessment Tool)
*******************************************
SED 406: Instructional Methods, Design and Technology. Teacher candidates are introduced to basic lesson planning and design, and in the process examine educational practices that address the needs of diverse learners. Topics include:  Universal Design for Learning, building community in the classroom, RIPTS, and the use of technology to maximize learning. Candidates also spend four hours observing expert teachers in their field in two different settings, one of which is ideally in an urban or urban-ring setting.
SED 407: Instructional Methods, Design and Literacy. Several of the course outcomes specifically address aspects of diversity.  For instance:

  • Develop lesson plans that … engage all learners, scaffold and differentiate instruction, incorporate student interests and literacy practices, assess student learning in multiple ways…
  • (Implement two lesson plans that) draw upon students' funds of knowledge and literacy practices to engage in academic learning in meaningful and authentic ways.
  • Explore current political and philosophical issues surrounding secondary schools, teachers and students.

Course topics/themes relevant to diversity include Differentiated Instruction; English Language Learners' needs and abilities; and Multiple Forms of Assessment. Candidates spend 10 hours in public school classrooms, observing initially and then teaching the two literacy-based lessons—one reading and one writing--they developed.  Candidates' lessons are differentiated and engaging according to best practices and address GLE's/GSE's and WIDA standards. In terms of specific groups, this includes:

Students from different racial and ethnic minority groups

Instructional strategies discussed in terms of diverse cultural practices and values.
Different language practices discussed in relation to reading and writing of texts and classroom discourse practices.
Students address these issues in lesson plans and in reflective writings.
Strength-based (aka “assets-based”) perspective on home culture.

English Language Learners

Concepts of BICS & CALP in relation to literacy teaching and learning and classroom discourse. Instructional strategies for promoting English language use, combined with a strength-based approach to L1.

 

Students with disabilities

 

Strength-based perspective taught in relation to assessment issues; concept of differentiated instruction, differentiated texts, vocabulary instruction (with focus on SPED 433 as providing in-depth knowledge and practice).

 

Economically disadvantaged students 

 

Relations between language and social class are discussed; distinction between everyday and academic language and discourse. Students assigned to use this distinction in writing up observations of students' oral and written discourse.

***************************************

SED 411: Content and Pedagogy In Secondary Education and SED 412: Field Practicum In Secondary Education (Formerly SED 410)

SED 411: Students examine principles, methods, content, and curriculum in the content area and prepare lessons and units that incorporate the needs of diverse learners and effective assessment strategies.
SED 412: Teacher candidates, under the supervision of college and cooperating instructors, plan, develop, and implement lesson plans within middle/secondary cooperating settings, drawing on content developed in SED 411.

Objectives and Assignments. Several objectives and assignments address aspects of teaching with diverse populations in mind:


Objectives.  Candidates will:

Readings/Resources

Assessments

Standards/Conceptual Framework

Create a student learning inventory that addresses students' self-identified strengths, weaknesses, and preferences when it comes to learning, literacy and English; and their cultural and social experiences.

Samples

Student Learning Inventory (formative); future lesson plans (summative)

RIPTS 3, 4, 8; NCTE 2.1, 3.7, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4; Knowledge, Diversity, Pedagogy

Develop an understanding of current definitions of literacies and discourses, and how these impact learning environments and individuals.

Power Point; NCTE position statement

Class discussion; in-class writing (formative); future lesson plans (summative)

RIPTS 1, 5; NCTE 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 3.7, 4.3, 4.4; Knowledge, Diversity, Pedagogy

Apply culturally responsive and social justice-oriented discourses to their work with kids and teaching.

Kohl; WIDA standards; Christensen 1-11; chapter 1; Teaching Tolerance articles;

Class discussion (formative); future lesson plans (summative)

RIPTS 1, 3, 4, 5; NCTE 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 3.7, 4.3, 4.4; Diversity, Pedagogy, Professionalism

Develop critical literacy practices as the means for analyzing a myriad of texts, including the canon, multicultural texts, web-based materials, and various forms of media and popular culture.

Atwell 9; Appleman 1,2, 4,5; Christensen 4; Beers handout

Class discussion; practice group lessons; reading log(formative);
mini-TCWS and field-based lessons (summative); critical analysis of media lesson plan (summative)

RIPTS 1,2, 5,8,9; NCTE 2.4, 4.1, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9; Pedagogy, Diversity

Create a writing assessment (assignment and rubric) that addresses students' funds of knowledge, offers choice, is challenging, and meets state standards

Christensen 2,3, 6, 7; notes from Fletcher and Strong; models

Individual and group practice (formative); Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 2,3, 4,5 9; NCTE 3.2, 3.4, 4.10; Pedagogy; Diversity

Develop an understanding of how language shapes student experience; particularly in the case of ELL's.

Christensen 5; jigsaw handouts; WIDA standards

Individual and group practice (formative); Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 1,2,4; NCTE 3.1, 3.2, 4.7; Diversity

Create appropriate and effective learning goals and objectives for a specific, culturally diverse group of students.

TCMWS; models; GLE's; RIPTS; WIDA; NCTE standards

Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 2, 3, 4,5; NCTE 2.1, 2.6, 4.2;Pedagogy, Diversity

Design an appropriate and effective assessment plan for a specific, culturally diverse group of students that includes differentiation, scaffolding, and frontloading so that all students have opportunities to succeed.

TCMWS; models; GLE's; RIPTS; WIDA; NCTE standards; NCTE Guidelines for “Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing”; “What Are Teacher-Made Tests?”

Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 2, 3, 4, 9; NCTE 2.1, 2.6, 4.4, 4.10; Knowledge, Pedagogy, Diversity

Create an appropriate and effective Design for Instruction (unit plan) for a specific, culturally diverse group of students.

TCMWS; models; GLE's; RIPTS; WIDA; NCTE standards

Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 2, 3, 4, 6; NCTE 2.1, 2.6, 4.4, 4.10; Knowledge, Pedagogy, Diversity

Field Settings. Candidates are placed in public schools in urban, urban ring, and suburban settings. These settings are diverse in regard to socio-economic status, special needs, racial, ethnic and religious backgrounds, and new immigrant cultures.  In FNED 346, all candidates are placed in urban schools through VIPS, Volunteers in Public Schools.  In SED 406, candidates observe expert teachers in two different settings (i.e., urban and suburban).  In SED 407, candidates are placed with teachers who have content literacy expertise, and these teachers are in diverse schools.  In SED 412, candidates spend 30 hours in an urban high school and 30 hours in a suburban middle school.  For SED 421, candidate placement is determined by a variety of factors, but we place candidates in urban, urban ring, and suburban settings.  While English Education program faculty choose cooperating teachers for SED 412 and SED 421, all placements are made through the Office of Partnerships and Placements (OPP) in the FSEHD, and contacts with the districts, schools, teachers, are made through this office. 

Teacher Candidate Mini-Work Sample.  As part of their Teacher Candidate Mini-Work Sample, candidates develop a minimum of three lessons that are assessed (with a rubric) on the following points relevant to meeting the needs of all students:

  • How your lesson differentiates instruction so that all learners are challenged and can succeed, including ELLs, students with disabilities, resistant learners, Gifted and Talented, and students who have diverse learning styles
  • How you plan to assess student learning during and/or following the lesson/task (i.e., formative assessment)
  • Classroom climate: Explain how you will create a supportive learning environment that encourages appropriate standards of behavior, positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation for all students.

Observation and Progress Report. Candidates are formally observed twice by the practicum instructor (once at each site) using the Observation and Progress Report.  The candidate is assessed on his/her ability to design, implement, and reflect upon meeting the needs of diverse students:

  • The content of the lesson is appropriate for the developmental levels of the students in this class
  • High quality implementation of all indicators (Planning, Action, Reflection): The candidate knows and consistently demonstrates the methods, skills, and strategies needed to meet students' diverse needs and interests.

************************************************

SED 421/422 Student Teaching and Student Teaching Seminar 

Teacher Candidates continue and expand upon practices and assessments introduced in SED 411/412, including the following objective that explicitly addresses student diversity: 

Present, critique, and improve diagnostic plans of individualizing instruction in response to the social, cultural, behavioral, or economic diversity of the student population

RIPTS 3-5, 7; PAR; Diversity, Pedagogy

TCWS: Contextual Factors; Instructional Decision-making; Reflection

Teacher Candidate Work Sample. Student teachers develop a contextual framework for their student teaching setting, which incorporates the following:

Process 1:  Contextual Factors
The candidate uses information about the learning-teaching context and student individual differences to set learning goals, plan instruction and assess learning.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of district, community, school, and classroom factors
  • Presents knowledge of characteristics of class members
  • Describes knowledge of students' skills and prior learning
  • Demonstrates knowledge of characteristics of specific students and approaches to differentiate learning
  • Includes implications for instructional planning and assessment

They also assess student learning, and subsequently adapt their lessons to better meet the needs of their students:

Process 5:  Instructional Decision-Making
The candidate uses ongoing analysis of student learning to make instructional decisions.

  • Rethinks plans for a group of students
  • Modifies plans for a group of students based on analysis of student learning
  • Explains the modifications made for a group of students (re: learning goals & unit objectives)
  • Rethinks plans for an individual student
  • Modifies plans for an individual student based on analysis of student learning
  • Explains the modifications made for an individual student (re: learning goals & unit objective

Observation and Progress Report. Student teachers are formally observed at least three times by the college supervisor and three times by their cooperating teacher, using the Observation and Progress Report.  The student teacher is assessed on his/her ability to design, implement, and reflect upon meeting the needs of diverse students:

  • The content of the lesson is appropriate for the developmental levels of the students in this class
  • High quality implementation of all indicators (Planning, Action, Reflection): The candidate knows and consistently demonstrates the methods, skills, and strategies needed to meet students' diverse needs and interests

7. TECHNOLOGY
All students applying for entrance into FSEHD take and pass either a Technology Competency Exam or INST 251 with a C or better.  This ensures that they have basic technology skills prior to beginning their professional sequence.

Initial Methods Courses
Teacher candidates take SED 406: Instructional Design, Methods, and Technology initially in their professional SED sequence and are introduced to the potential of technology to enhance and differentiate instruction as well as engage and motivate learners.

(Catalog Description) Students learn the fundamentals of lesson design and methods for integrating instructional technology to enhance content area teaching and learning. Students design and present model lessons in a laboratory setting. 

Teacher Candidates in SED 406 utilize the Web for resources and teaching strategies (blogs, web design etc.); evaluate online resources; explore how to integrate various technologies into different forms of instruction (direct, inquiry-based etc.); and develop and teach mini-lessons to their peers that are assessed in part on their integration of appropriate technology into the lesson. The expectation that they will utilize technology in their teaching carries through into SED 407: Instructional Design, Methods, and Content Literacy and subsequently the content methods/ practicum and student teaching experience.

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SED 411: Content and Pedagogy In Secondary Education and SED 412: Field Practicum In Secondary Education (Formerly SED 410)

SED 411: Students examine principles, methods, content, and curriculum in the content area and prepare lessons and units that incorporate the needs of diverse learners and effective assessment strategies.
SED 412: Teacher candidates, under the supervision of college and cooperating instructors, plan, develop, and implement lesson plans within middle/secondary cooperating settings, drawing on content developed in SED 411.

In SED 411 and SED 412, candidates routinely utilize technology in their teaching, as noted by the following two objectives: 


Develop critical literacy practices as the means for analyzing a myriad of texts, including the canon, multicultural texts, web-based materials, and various forms of media and popular culture.

Atwell 9; Appleman 1,2, 4,5; Christensen 4; Beers handout

Class discussion; practice group lessons; reading log(formative);
mini-TCWS and field-based lessons (summative); critical analysis of media lesson plan (summative)

RIPTS 1,2, 5,8,9; NCTE 2.4, 4.1, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9; Pedagogy, Diversity

Utilize technology effectively in planning and implementation of lesson plans.

models

Mini-TCWS (summative)

RIPTS 2, 4; NCTE 4.6; Knowledge, Pedagogy

 As part of the course design, candidates utilize and critique internet resources (such as state, school, and the NCTE websites), and communicate via online technologies such as blogs and discussion boards.  Technology is understood as a tool and resource that makes it possible to serve the needs of students not only for access to content, but also to accomplish other objectives (e.g., differentiating instruction, addressing ELL needs, fostering active learning, etc.).   
The possibilities for utilizing technology in the field are at times circumscribed by available resources at the schools in which they teach, but given that candidates teach in two different schools over the course of the semester, most have some opportunity to access a range of technology.  

Teacher Candidate Mini-Work Sample Components.  Teacher Candidates in SED 411 develop a unit plan with three lesson plans from the unit that reflect a variety of instructional strategies/techniques. 
One aspect they are asked to address in their three lessons relates specifically to technology:

Candidates are then evaluated on their use of technology in the three lessons:

Use of Technology
(RIPTS 2)

     (Unacceptable)
Technology is inappropriately used OR candidate does not use technology or provide a rationale for its omission.

A description of how planning and/or instruction could be enhanced with the use of technology is absent.

      (Acceptable)
Candidate uses technology appropriately.

Technology contributes to teaching and learning.
OR
Candidate provides a clear rationale for omission of technology AND describes how planning and/or instruction could be enhanced with the use of technology.

        (Target)
Candidate consistently integrates appropriate technology.

Use of technology makes a significant contribution to teaching and learning.

Lesson Planning and Delivery in Practicum. The college supervisor and cooperating teacher use the Observation and Progress Report to evaluate the candidates at least once at each of the two practicum sites. The candidate's use of technology in lesson planning and delivery is given a rating from 0 – 6.  See the Observation and Progress Report for rating descriptions) on the indicators below:
       

LESSON PLANNING
4.
 The instructional strategies, activities and technical resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) in this lesson plan demonstrate attention to students' experience, preparedness, and/or learning styles. 
5.The instructional strategies, activities and technical resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) in this lesson plan demonstrate attention to issues of access, equity, and diversity for students.

ACTION              

3. The teacher candidate designs or adapts relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) to promote student learning and creativity.
5. The teacher candidate customizes and personalizes learning activities using digital tools and resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology).

********************************************
Student Teaching (SED 421) and Student Teaching Seminar (SED 422)
In SED 421, candidates are evaluated on their use of technology via the Observation and Progress Report and the Teacher Candidate Work Sample. 

Observation and Progress Report. Both the college supervisor and the cooperating teacher (a minimum of 3x each = 6) evaluate the teacher candidate's use of technology in specific lessons that they observe, giving them a rating from 0 – 6 (see Observation and Progress Report for rating descriptions) on the indicators below:               

LESSON PLANNING
4.
   The instructional strategies, activities and technical resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) in this lesson plan demonstrate attention to students' experience, preparedness, and/or learning styles. 
5.The instructional strategies, activities and technical resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) in this lesson plan demonstrate attention to issues of access, equity, and diversity for students.

ACTION              

3. The teacher candidate designs or adapts relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology) to promote student learning and creativity.
5. The teacher candidate customizes and personalizes learning activities using digital tools and resources (e.g. manipulatives, adaptive or assistive technologies, electronic technology).

In the OPR section titled “Ongoing Progress,” cooperating teachers are asked to rate their student teachers on their use of technology three times over the course of the student teaching semester.  At each time, they evaluate the student teachers on their “ongoing” utilization of technology in their lessons, using the rating scale bel

  • The teacher candidate communicates relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and peers using a variety of digital-age media and formats.

____

  • The teacher candidate models and facilitates effective use of current and emerging digital tools to locate, analyze, evaluate, and use information resources to support research and learning.

 

____

Teacher Candidate Work Sample Components.  As with the Design for Instruction in the mini-TCWS, student teachers develop and implement a unit plan that includes three lesson plans taught during the unit that reflect a variety of instructional strategies/techniques. 
One aspect they are asked to address in their three lessons relates specifically to technology:

Teacher Candidates are then evaluated on their use of technology in the three lessons.

Use of Technology
(RIPTS 2)

     (Unacceptable)
Technology is inappropriately used OR candidate does not use technology or provide a rationale for its omission.

A description of how planning and/or instruction could be enhanced with the use of technology is absent.

      (Acceptable)
Candidate uses technology appropriately.

Technology contributes to teaching and learning.
OR
Candidate provides a clear rationale for omission of technology AND describes how planning and/or instruction could be enhanced with the use of technology.

        (Target)
Candidate consistently integrates appropriate technology.

Use of technology makes a significant contribution to teaching and learning.

K-12 STANDARDS AND INITIATIVES

State Initiative/Program/Standard

Course(s)

Assessment of Candidate Knowledge

*GLE's/GSE's

SED 407
SED 411-412
SED 421-422

Lesson Plans
Lesson Plans (mini-TCWS; OPR)
Lesson Plans (TCWS; OPR)

*NECAP Tests

FNED 346
SED 421-422
CEP 315

Discussion, Journal, Blog
TCWS—Contextual Factors
“In My School” presentation

**Response to Intervention (RTI)

CEP 315
SPED 433

“In My School” presentation
Quiz

PBGR

SED 421-422

TCWS—Contextual Factors

*Secondary Education faculty acknowledge that the GLE's and GSE's and NECAP will be replaced by the Common Core standards and assessments in 2014-2015.  However, since teachers are still using the GLE's/GSE's, instructors focus on these. 
**RTI will be required of secondary schools starting in 2011, and will be included in SED courses accordingly.

9. POST-GRADUATION


Information on the preparedness of graduates is available from the FSEHD via the Office of Placements and Partnerships. For anecdotal purposes, please see a selection of unsolicited emails from graduates and others below. They have been edited to remove names and other personal information.

From:
Sent: Wed 3/19/2008 9:48 PM
To: Johnson, Janet
Subject: you'd be proud

Hi Janet,

I was thinking of you today during an activity we did as a pre-reading exercise to Romeo and Juliet. To look at some of themes of the play (revenge/violence/family feud/young love) I came up with modern situations (family argument at a BBQ, young girl bringing boy home of different race, etc...) to do as a role play scenario. It brought me back to the time we did something similar in practicum when you were fed up with doing the same activity.

Mind you, it was hysterical in one of my classes where I have 14 boys and only 3 girls haha I sent their heads spinning. It was interesting taking a look at gender roles (even though that wasn't my primary role) and having to explain the fact that Elizabethan actors were men, even for female roles. "Mr.Burns, you can't do that...that's wrong" Masculinity is such a hugeeee issue and here I go turning it upside down.

haha you taught me well :)

*************
From:
Sent: Monday, May 17, 2010 3:54 PM
To: Johnson, Janet
Subject: Thank You

Dr. Johnson I felt like I didn't get to properly thank you for everything you have done for me over the past year and a half so I wanted to send you this email to say thank you once again. I was really nervous about how I would perform in front of the classroom way back in the Spring of 2009 when we first met. Since then I have noticed a dramatic change in myself as both a person and a future educator and I attribute much of that growth to your teaching, guidance, and support. Thank you for everything and good luck with your new batch of teachers as well. If you ever need a guest speaker to rally the troops, I would be willing and honored to help you if I am able to.

Also, I figured you'll be happy to hear that I have landed a long term sub position in XXXX for the end of the school year. I'm very excited about it and I start Monday.

Thanks again,

**********************
From:
Sent: Monday, October 06, 2008 2:51 PM
To: Johnson, Janet
Subject: Hello and Update

Hello!!!

How are you? I think of you everyday of my life. I am having a very wonderful year. Probably the best year I have had in my life. Last year, teachers used to tell me that this group of eighth graders are exceptionally terrible. While I like to believe that, I truly thought they were just saying that so I would stop feeling so badly about my weak managment skills. This year however, the kids are dramaticaly different...and so am I. The control, the managment, the teaching, the calmness, my room, my system, my nerves....altogether are just so so ...improved and nice. What a relief. Also, I decided to take a new approach to the Language program. I decided to love it (pretend to) and balance it off whole language style through different approaches. The result is an overall more positive learning group.


If you would like any students to come to my room, to either see a Janet product in action, or a scripted lesson and how I balance it off with book clubs and reading groups, I would love to. I really feel like I have made leaps and bounds upwards in my teaching practice, and I must say that everyone, including the principle has noticed.

**************************************
From:
Sent: Fri 8/31/2007 11:31 AM
To: Johnson, Janet
Subject: RE: Mentoring program for beginning teachers

Hi Dr. Johnson!

Good to hear from ya! I just got a call from XXXXX today and am officially working there for the fall starting next wednesday. I have to thank you again for everything you've done for me to get me this far. I found that, in interviews, i was very well prepared to answer any question, and had great experiences and work in my portfolio to supplement those answers. Thank you again.

Hope all is well with you and your new students...my advice to them (and maybe even yourself) is that on a day to day basis, things can seem grueling and tedious, but on a student to student basis, all the work is so worth it when you see the techniques you've read so much about actually show on that kid's face when he/she has their "lightbulb moment."
**************************

From:
Sent: Wednesday, December 08, 2010 9:24 AM
To: Cook, Jennifer S.
Subject: Re: Congrats!

Thanks, Jenn!

I would love to talk to you about collaborating!  Even though things are a bit hectic with appointments, therapy sessions, and preparations, I would really like for us to meet up.  How is next week for you?  Some days are better for afternoon meetings, while others are after-dinner days.  Let me know what works for you, and let's make it happen.

BTW, 826 National looks rad.  I vaguely remember hearing about them, but I just read the write-up, and they look awesome.  Deeper explorations to follow... Thanks!

On Wed, Dec 8, 2010 at 7:29 AM, Cook, Jennifer S. <jcook@ric.edu<mailto:jcook@ric.edu>> wrote:
Hi Jason,

I'm writing to congratulate you on the Grand Opening of the XXXX Writing Center! So Exciting!

I am so proud of the good work you are doing! And, I wondered if you wanted to talk, at some point, about how the RIWP might support your work at the XXXX Writing Center. I'm starting my gig as Exec. Director on Jan 1, 2011, so we should set a date to talk sometime (even though I know you have a sweet little baby on the way, too!).

Also, wondered if you've heard of these folks. They have a "chapter" in Boston, which is the closest one to us here in PVD.

http://826national.org/about/
****************************
From:
Sent: Wednesday, December 08, 2010 10:36 PM
To: Cook, Jennifer S.
Subject: Advice

Hi Dr. Cook,

I hope your semester is ending as smoothly as possible. I need some guidance and I appreciate your advice.

I'm in the middle of my fourth year of teaching high school English. I have my Master's in English and am finishing my first semester of teaching as an adjunct professor. It will be almost a year since being in school. I want to put things into place (as soon as possible) for something else. I want (need) to be back in school but still want to be in the high school classroom during the day. I have two options on my plate right now. I've looked into near-by programs in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but Rhode Island College seems to work for me on several levels. I have two options on my plate right now.

1- M.Ed in Advanced Studies in Teaching and Learning @ RIC - Start in Spring 2011

2- Ph.D in Education @ RIC - Start in Fall 2011

If I already have an M.A., does it make sense to go right to the Ph.D. or should I begin with the M.Ed? Should I have more years of teaching experience before I go for a Ph.D in Education? I don't know which would benefit me personally and professionally the most at this point. I don't want to make a foolish decision. What do you think?

I appreciate your thoughts and advice!

*******************************
Hi there,

Just wanted to let you know that my first week of teaching in my own classroom has been better than I ever could have imagined. Aside from the fact that my only free time is to eat and sleep, I love being at work. The group of students I work with are pretty much a perfect fit for me. Most of them have limited English skills or have IEPs, and I like to be very thorough and structured when I teach, so we match up very nicely. Today was amazing. We are reading a short story by Langston Hughes, and there were kids volunteering to stand at the front of the room and read portions aloud to their peers. I even got the "Miss, we can't stop now!" at the end of class. I just feel incredible being there and I'm so happy to have had this opportunity kind of thrust upon me. All of the work and stress last year was totally worth it. =)

Hope you are well!

PS XXXX got a long term position at XXXX (until further notice.. the teacher unfortunately has cancer) and she is enjoying it. Have you heard from anyone else? We should do an "update" email.

   
So Exciting!

I am so proud of the good work you are doing! And, I wondered if you wanted to talk, at some point, about how the RIWP might support your work at the XXXX Writing Center. I'm starting my gig as Exec. Director on Jan 1, 2011, so we should set a date to talk sometime (even though I know you have a sweet little baby on the way, too!).

Also, wondered if you've heard of these folks. They have a "chapter" in Boston, which is the closest one to us here in PVD.

http://826national.org/about/
****************************
From:
Sent: Wednesday, December 08, 2010 10:36 PM
To: Cook, Jennifer S.
Subject: Advice

Hi Dr. Cook,

I hope your semester is ending as smoothly as possible. I need some guidance and I appreciate your advice.

I'm in the middle of my fourth year of teaching high school English. I have my Master's in English and am finishing my first semester of teaching as an adjunct professor. It will be almost a year since being in school. I want to put things into place (as soon as possible) for something else. I want (need) to be back in school but still want to be in the high school classroom during the day. I have two options on my plate right now. I've looked into near-by programs in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but Rhode Island College seems to work for me on several levels. I have two options on my plate right now.

1- M.Ed in Advanced Studies in Teaching and Learning @ RIC - Start in Spring 2011

2- Ph.D in Education @ RIC - Start in Fall 2011

If I already have an M.A., does it make sense to go right to the Ph.D. or should I begin with the M.Ed? Should I have more years of teaching experience before I go for a Ph.D in Education? I don't know which would benefit me personally and professionally the most at this point. I don't want to make a foolish decision. What do you think?

I appreciate your thoughts and advice!

*******************************
Hi there,

Just wanted to let you know that my first week of teaching in my own classroom has been better than I ever could have imagined. Aside from the fact that my only free time is to eat and sleep, I love being at work. The group of students I work with are pretty much a perfect fit for me. Most of them have limited English skills or have IEPs, and I like to be very thorough and structured when I teach, so we match up very nicely. Today was amazing. We are reading a short story by Langston Hughes, and there were kids volunteering to stand at the front of the room and read portions aloud to their peers. I even got the "Miss, we can't stop now!" at the end of class. I just feel incredible being there and I'm so happy to have had this opportunity kind of thrust upon me. All of the work and stress last year was totally worth it. =)

Hope you are well!

PS XXXX got a long term position at XXXX (until further notice.. the teacher unfortunately has cancer) and she is enjoying it. Have you heard from anyone else? We should do an "update" email.